Overview of KLEE’s main command-line options
- KLEE usage
- KLEE Output
- Symbolic Environment
- Search Heuristics
- Query Logging
- Entry Point
- Calls to
- KLEE debug
- Memory Management
- Making KLEE Exit on Events
- Linking External Libraries
The general form of a KLEE command-line is first the arguments for KLEE itself (
[klee-options]), then the LLVM bitcode file to execute (
program.bc), and then any arguments to pass to the application (
In particular, the KLEE option
-posix-runtime enables the use of the symbolic environment options as part of the program’s options.
To get a complete list of KLEE’s command-line options run:
klee --help. The remainder of this page illustrate KLEE’s main command-line options.
The files generated by KLEE are discussed here.
By default KLEE outputs warnings both on screen and in the file
klee-last/warnings.txt. To output the warnings only to the file, and not on screen, one can use:
KLEE provides several options as part of its symbolic environment:
-sym-arg <N>- Replace by a symbolic argument with length N.
-sym-args <MIN> <MAX> <N>- Replace by at least MIN arguments and at most MAX arguments, each with maximum length N.
-sym-files <NUM> <N>- Make NUM symbolic files (‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’, etc.), each with size N (excluding stdin)
-sym-stdin <N>- Make stdin symbolic with size N.
-sym-stdout- Make stdout symbolic.
-save-all-writes- Allow write operations to execute as expected even if they exceed the file size (default=on). When off, all writes exceeding the initial file size are discarded. Note: file offset is always incremented.
-max-fail <N>- Allow up to N injected failures.
-fd-fail- Shortcut for ‘-max-fail 1’.
Some usage examples:
Main search heuristics
KLEE provides four main search heuristics:
- Depth-First Search (DFS): Traverses states in depth-first order.
- Random State Search:Randomly selects a state to explore.
- Random Path Selection: Described in our KLEE OSDI’08 paper.
- Non Uniform Random Search (NURS): Selects a state randomly according to a given distribution. The distribution can be based on the minimum distance to an uncovered instruction (MD2U), the query cost, etc.
To select a search heuristic, use the
--search option provided by KLEE. For example:
demo.o using DFS, while
runs it using the random path selection strategy. The full list of options is shown in KLEE’s help message:
Interleaving search heuristics
Search heuristics in KLEE can be interleaved in a round-robin fashion. To interleave several search heuristics to be interleaved, use the
--search multiple times. For example:
interleaves the Random State and the NURS:MD2U heuristics in a round robin fashion.
Default search heuristics
The default heuristics used by KLEE are
random-path interleaved with
To log the queries issued by KLEE during symbolic execution see Solver Chain.
To change the entry point you can use the option
-entry-point=FUNCTION_NAME, where FUNCTION_NAME is the name of the function to use as the entry point for execution.
By default, KLEE will report an error if the assumed condition is infeasible. The option
-silent-klee-assume can be used to silently terminate the current path exploration in such cases.
By default, KLEE generates two files containing statistics concerning the code exploration:
- run.stats: This is a text file containing various statistics emitted by KLEE. While this file can be inspected manually, you should use the klee-stats tool for that.
- run.istats: This is a text file in Callgrind format containing global statistics emitted by KLEE for each line of code in the program. This file can be inspected with frontends which are able to read it (e.g. kcachegrind)
There are several options to modify how KLEE outputs statistics:
-stats- Enable statistics output from program (default=on)
-output-stats- Write running stats trace file (default=on)
-output-istats- Write instruction level statistics in callgrind format (default=on)
-stats-write-interval=TIME- Approximate number of seconds between stats writes (default=1.0s)
-istats-write-interval=TIME- Approximate number of seconds between istats writes (default=10.0s)
-stats-write-after-instructions=N- Write statistics after each
Ninstructions, 0 to disable (default=0)
-istats-write-after-instructions=N- Write istats after each
Ninstructions, 0 to disable (default=0)
KLEE provides several debugging options:
-debug-print-instructions=FORMAT- Log the LLVM instructions executed by KLEE (default=off).
The output may include: the source code file and line (
src), the instruction identifier as assigned by KLEE (
inst_id), and the LLVM instruction with debugging informations (
llvm_inst). The output format can be controlled with the following options:
=all:stderr- Log all instructions to stderr in format
[src, inst_id, llvm_inst]
=src:stderr- Log all instructions to stderr in format
=compact:stderr- Log all instructions to stderr in format
=all:file- Log all instructions to file instructions.txt in format
[src, inst_id, llvm_inst]
=src:file- Log all instructions to file instructions.txt in format
=compact:file- Log all instructions to file instructions.txt in format
-debug-compress-instructions- Compress the
KLEE explicitly intercepts calls for memory management (like
free()) and forwards to an existing memory allocators.
To change this behaviour, following options are provided:
--allocate-determ- Enable support to allocate memory deterministically for the executed application (default=off)
--allocate-determ-size- For deterministic allocation, the buffer of the specified size is pre-allocated in MB (default=100)
--allocate-determ-start-addres- Controls the required start address of the pre-allocated memory. This address has to be page aligned. If null is provided, the memory is mapped to an arbitrary address.
--return-null-on-zero-malloc- Controls if a NULL pointer should be returned in case the size argument is zero (default=off)
--red-zone-space- Controls the space kept unused between two adjacent allocations in byte (default=10)
Making KLEE Exit on Events
KLEE does not exit if a bug is found in the analyzed application by default. On the other hand, KLEE implicitly exits on some failures. This behaviour can be changed by the following options:
-exit-on-error- Exit on the first arbitrary error.
-exit-on-error-type=TYPE- Exit on the first error of type
TYPE. This parameter can be repeated to exit after more types.
TYPEcan one of the following:
=Abort- The program crashed
=Assert- An assertion was hit
=Exec- Trying to execute an unexpected instruction
=External- External objects referenced
=Free- Freeing invalid memory
=Model- Memory model limit hit
=Overflow- An overflow occurred
=Ptr- Pointer error
=ReadOnly- Write to read-only memory
=Unhandled- Unhandled instruction hit
-ignore-solver-failures- Do not exit upon solver failure.
Linking External Libraries
Definitions of undefined functions are taken from files given using the option
If some functions in the input file are defined in an external LLVM IR file, an
archive (.a) of LLVM IR files, or a shared object with LLVM IR code, these
external files can be linked in using the option
For example, the following command runs KLEE on the program
a helper library:
The option can be provided multiple times. For instance, linking two libraries, helper and helper2, can be done with the following command: