Building KLEE (recommended)
with LLVM 3.4
NOTE: This is the documentation for the version of KLEE in the master branch which might differ from released KLEE. For documentation relevant to a particular KLEE release see the releases page.
The current procedure for building KLEE with LLVM 3.4 (recommended) is outlined below. These instructions use KLEE’s new CMake based build system. If you wish to build with KLEE’s older build system then see here.
If you want to build KLEE with LLVM 2.9, click here.
Install dependencies: KLEE requires all the dependencies of LLVM, which are discussed here. In particular, you should install the following programs and libraries, listed below as Ubuntu packages:
$ sudo apt-get install build-essential curl libcap-dev git cmake libncurses5-dev python-minimal python-pip unzip
You will need gcc/g++ 4.8 or later installed on your system. For Ubuntu 12.04 and 13.04, you can follow the instructions here.
Install LLVM 3.4: KLEE is built on top of LLVM; the first steps are to get a working LLVM installation. See Getting Started with the LLVM System for more information.
NOTE: KLEE is currently tested on Linux x86-64, and might break on x86-32.
If you are using a recent Ubuntu (≥ 12.04 and ≤ 15.10, e.g. 14.04 LTS) or Debian, we recommend you to use the LLVM packages provided by LLVM itself. Use LLVM Package Repository to add the appropriate line to your
/etc/apt/sources.list. As an example, for Ubuntu 14.04, the following lines should be added:
deb http://llvm.org/apt/trusty/ llvm-toolchain-trusty-3.4 main deb-src http://llvm.org/apt/trusty/ llvm-toolchain-trusty-3.4 main
Then add the repository key and install the 3.4 packages:
$ wget -O - http://llvm.org/apt/llvm-snapshot.gpg.key|sudo apt-key add - $ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install clang-3.4 llvm-3.4 llvm-3.4-dev llvm-3.4-tools
Finally, make sure llvm-config is in your path:
That’s it for LLVM. If you want to install it manually, please refer to the official LLVM Getting Started documentation.
NOTE: If you build LLVM and Clang 3.4 from source DO NOT USE CMAKE TO BUILD IT. Use LLVM’s Autoconf/Makefile build system. Although KLEE’s CMake build system is independent of the build system used to build LLVM and Clang a bug in LLVM 3.4 means that if CMake is used to build LLVM then it will likely lead to RTTI related linking errors.
Install constraint solver(s)
KLEE supports multiple different constraint solvers. You must install at least one to build KLEE.
- STP Historically KLEE was built around STP so support for this solver is the most stable. For build instructions, see here.
- Z3 is a more recent addition to KLEE but is reasonably stable. You should use Z3 version ≥ 4.4. For build instructions, see here.
- metaSMT supports
various solvers, including Boolector, STP and Z3. We recommend branch v4.rc1 (
git clone -b v4.rc1 ...). For build instructions, see here.
(Optional) Build uclibc and the POSIX environment model: By default, KLEE works on closed programs (programs that don’t use any external code such as C library functions). However, if you want to use KLEE to run real programs you will want to enable the KLEE POSIX runtime, which is built on top of the uClibc C library.
To build klee-uclibc run:
$ git clone https://github.com/klee/klee-uclibc.git $ cd klee-uclibc $ ./configure --make-llvm-lib $ make -j2 $ cd ..
NOTE: If you are on a different target (i.e., not i386 or x64), you will need to run make config and select the correct target. The defaults for the other uClibc configuration variables should be fine.
To tell KLEE to use klee-uclibc and use the POSIX runtime pass
-DKLEE_UCLIBC_PATH=<KLEE_UCLIBC_SOURCE_DIR>to CMake when configuring KLEE in step 9 where
<KLEE_UCLIBC_SOURCE_DIR>is the absolute path to the cloned
(Optional) Get Google test sources:
For unit tests we use the Google test libraries. If you don’t want to run the unit tests you can skip this step but you will need to pass
-DENABLE_UNIT_TESTS=OFFto CMake when configuring KLEE in step 9.
We depend on a version
1.7.0right now so grab the sources for it.
$ curl -OL https://github.com/google/googletest/archive/release-1.7.0.zip $ unzip release-1.7.0.zip
This will create a directory called
(Optional) Install lit:
For testing the
littool is used. If you LLVM from a build tree you can skip this step as the build system will try to use
llvm-litin the directory containing the LLVM binaries.
If you don’t want to run the tests you can skip this step but you will need to pass
-DENABLE_SYSTEM_TESTS=OFFto CMake when configuring KLEE in step 9.
$ pip install lit
(Optional) Install tcmalloc:
By default, KLEE uses
malloc_info()to observe and to restrict its memory usage. Due to limitations of
malloc_info(), the maximum limit is set to 2 GB. To support bigger limits, KLEE can use TCMalloc as an alternative allocator. It is thus necessary to install TCMalloc:
$ sudo apt-get install libtcmalloc-minimal4 libgoogle-perftools-dev
When configuring KLEE in step 9 pass
-DENABLE_TCMALLOC=ONto CMake when configuring KLEE.
Get KLEE source:
$ git clone https://github.com/klee/klee.git
KLEE must be built “out of source” so first make a binary build directory. You can create this where ever you like.
$ mkdir klee_build_dir
cdinto the build directory and run CMake to configure KLEE where
<KLEE_SRC_DIRECTORY>is the path to the KLEE git repository you cloned in step 8.
$ cd klee_build_dir $ cmake <CMAKE_OPTIONS> <KLEE_SRC_DIRECTORY>
<CMAKE_OPTIONS>are the configuration options. These are documented in README-CMake.md.
For example if KLEE was being built with STP, the POSIX runtime, klee-uclibc and testing then the command line would look something like this
cmake \ -DENABLE_SOLVER_STP=ON \ -DENABLE_POSIX_RUNTIME=ON \ -DENABLE_KLEE_UCLIBC=ON \ -DKLEE_UCLIBC_PATH=<KLEE_UCLIBC_SOURCE_DIR> \ -DGTEST_SRC_DIR=<GTEST_SOURCE_DIR> \ -DENABLE_SYSTEM_TESTS=ON \ -DENABLE_UNIT_TESTS=ON \ <KLEE_SRC_DIRECTORY>
<KLEE_UCLIBC_SOURCE_DIR>is the absolute path the klee-uclibc source tree,
<GTEST_SOURCE_DIR>is the absolute path to the Google Test source tree.
NOTE: If LLVM is not found or you need a particular version to be used you can pass
-DLLVM_CONFIG_BINARY=<LLVM_CONFIG_BINARY>to CMake where
<LLVM_CONFIG_BINARY>is the absolute path to the relevant
llvm-configbinary. Similary KLEE needs a C and C++ compiler that can create LLVM bitcode that is compatible with the version of LLVM KLEE is using. If these are not detected automatically
-DLLVMCXX=<PATH_TO_CLANG++>can be passed to explicitly set these compilers where
<PATH_TO_CLANG>is the absolute path to
<PATH_TO_CLANG++>is the absolute path to
klee_build_dirdirectory created in the previous step run.
NOTE: If you see linker errors involving
cxx11you may be running into the dual ABI issue. Here’s an example:
/usr/lib/llvm-3.4/include/llvm/Support/CommandLine.h:905: undefined reference to `vtable for llvm::cl::parser<std::__cxx11::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> > >' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o: In function `main': /home/user/programs/klee/klee/tools/kleaver/main.cpp:413: undefined reference to `llvm::error_code::message[abi:cxx11]() const' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o: In function `llvm::cl::opt<std::__cxx11::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> >, false, llvm::cl::parser<std::__cxx11::basic_string<char, std::char_traits<char>, std::allocator<char> > > >::~opt()':
This is caused by a mismatch between the ABI used to build LLVM and the ABI used to build KLEE. To fix this delete your KLEE build directory and rerun
$ CXXFLAGS="-D_GLIBCXX_USE_CXX11_ABI=0" cmake <CMAKE_OPTIONS> <KLEE_SRC_DIRECTORY>
NOTE: If you see linker errors involving undefined references to
typeinfothis is likely an RTTI issue. Here’s an example:
[ 81%] Linking CXX executable ../../bin/kleaver CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o:(.rodata+0x1238): undefined reference to `typeinfo for llvm::cl::Option' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o:(.rodata+0x1270): undefined reference to `typeinfo for llvm::cl::generic_parser_base' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o:(.rodata+0x12d0): undefined reference to `typeinfo for llvm::cl::GenericOptionValue' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o:(.rodata+0x12f8): undefined reference to `typeinfo for llvm::cl::Option' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o:(.rodata+0x1330): undefined reference to `typeinfo for llvm::cl::generic_parser_base' CMakeFiles/kleaver.dir/main.cpp.o:(.rodata+0x1390): undefined reference to `typeinfo for llvm::cl::GenericOptionValue'
The issue here is that LLVM was built without RTTI but KLEE is trying to build with RTTI. This is caused by the
llvm-configbinary not correctly reporting that
-fno-rttineeds to be passed to the compiler. To fix this delete your KLEE build directory and rerun
$ CXXFLAGS="-fno-rtti" cmake <CMAKE_OPTIONS> <KLEE_SRC_DIRECTORY>
(Optional) Run the main regression test suite
If KLEE was configured with system tests enabled then you can run them like this.
$ make systemtests
If you want to invoke
$ lit test/
This way you can run individual tests or subsets of the suite:
$ lit test/regression
(Optional) Build and run the unit tests:
If KLEE was configured with unit tests enabled then you can build and run the unit tests like this.
$ make unittests
You’re ready to go! Check the Tutorials page to try KLEE.
NOTE: For testing real applications (e.g. Coreutils), you may need to increase your system’s open file limit (ulimit -n). Something between 10000 and 999999 should work. In most cases, the hard limit will have to be increased first, so it is best to directly edit the